Kharulian Test Cases

  1. The sun shines.

    it anrjm

    It árnaghiam.

    [it ˈáʝam]

    it   án-raghiam
    sun  4s-shine  
  2. The sun is shining.

    it anrjman

    It árnaghman.

    [it ˈár.naʝ.man]

    it   án-raghm-an  
    sun  4s-shine-PROG
  3. The sun shone.

    it anrjmoj

    It arnaghmogh.

    [it ar.naʝˈmɔʝ]

    it   an-raghm-ogh
    sun  4s-shine-PFV
  4. The sun will shine.

    it anrjmet

    It arnaghmueet.

    [it ar.naʝˈmˠeːt]

    it   an-raghm-ue-et  
    sun  4s-shine-PFV-FUT
  5. The sun has been shining.

    it anrjmj

    It árnaghiamy.

    [it ˈʝamʲ]

    it   án-raghiam-y 
    sun  4s-shine-IPFV

    The translation here really depends on how you imagine the sentence continuing. The above assumes something like “The sun has been shining, and we’ve been enjoying its warmth”. If it’s “…, but now it’s going behind a cloud”, you’d use the progressive árnaghman to indicate the interruption. If it’s “… for almost four hours now”, you’d be more likely to use the protractive arnaghmía.

  6. The sun is shining again.

    it anrjmpran

    It arnaghmabran.

    [it ar.naʝ.məbˈran]

    it   an-raghm-br-an     
    sun  4s-shine-again-PROG
  7. The sun will shine tomorrow.

    it autasu sy anrjmoj

    It auucharu sakh arnaghmogh.

    [it a.uːˈtʃ saç ar.naʝˈmɔʝ]

    it   auucharu  s-akh    an-raghm-ogh
    sun  tomorrow  INAN-on  4s-shine-PFV
  8. The sun shines brightly.

    it agymuasa anrjm

    It ankhiamaraa árnaghiam.

    [it aɲ.çaˈma.raː ˈʝam]

    it   an-khiama-raa     án-raghiam
    sun  4s-fill-IPFV.CVB  4s-shine  
  9. The bright sun shines.

    agymuasa it anrjm

    Ankhiamara it árnaghiam.

    [aɲ.çaˈma.ra it ˈʝam]

    an-khiama-ra       it   án-raghiam
    4s-fill-IPFV.PTCP  sun  4s-shine  
  10. The sun is rising now.

    it egqitan

    It enchíidzan

    [it ɛɲˈtʃiː.dzan]

    it   en-chíidz-an 
    sun  3s-begin-PROG
  1. Were you born in this village?

    zeh tamso zez qiqit iki

    Shel tsamzo shezh chichiit igui?

    [ʃɛɫ ˈtsam.zo ʃɛʒ tʃiˈtʃiːt ˈi.ɡʷi]

    sh-el         tsamz-o      sh-ezh      chi-chiit   ig-ui
    INAN.SG-this  village-ACC  INAN.SG-in  2s-be.born  Q-PFV