Muipidan Lexicon

Total entries: 309















adamodonoun (hmudo class)

Old Muipidan ‘ada

(plurals athadamodo, at’aadamodo)

  1. father

  2. adamoytonoun (moyto class)
    1. father-in-law (of a woman)

adesverb (sis class)

Old Muipidan hadis

(2s at’a)

  1. (NOM V [ACC]) to work [at], to labour, to toil

ahoaytonoun (ayto class)

Old Muipidan ‘axhu, from ‘axas “to scurry”

  1. ant

  2. ahok’odonoun (kup’o class)
    1. anthill, swarm of ants

amamodonoun (hmudo class)

Old Muipidan ‘ama

  1. mother

  2. amamoytonoun (moyto class)
    1. mother-in-law (of a woman)

anok’ïdonoun (kato class)

Old Muipidan ‘ano

  1. date (fruit)

  2. anok’odonoun (kup’o class)
    1. date palm

aphaphaytonoun (ayto class)


  1. butterfly, moth

atletadenoun (ndado class)

Old Muipidan hatli, related to hadis “to work”

  1. work, labour

  2. job, task, duty

  3. atlekendenoun (kinde class)
    1. labourer

    atlenatadenoun (ndado class)
    1. free time, break, leave

    2. (as adjective) off duty, free of work

    3. (as adjective, about one’s inferior) idle, slacking off

emüsüdenoun (thudo class)

Old Muipidan hemu

  1. sun

  2. Emükendeproper noun (kinde class)

    (addressed as Emada “father Em”)

    1. Emada, the sun god

esverb (myas class)

Old Muipidan hes

(infinitive pha, locative may)

  1. (NOM V) to exist

      • Hebi pha hebi pha nate.

        = To be or not to be.

  2. (V NOM) to be here

      • Ehmüda fumuymo.

        = There are two dogs here.

  3. (NOM V LOC) to be at

  4. (NOM V LOC or LOC V NOM) to be possessed by

Famogïk’odoproper noun (kup’o class)

Old Muipidan Famoge

  1. Famogikodo city

fendedenoun (nit’e class)

Old Muipidan fe

  1. month (of 17 or 18 days)

  2. naok’odo ne-fendinoun (kup’o class)
    1. season (of four months)

        • Nonnakïndo hnas ne-lahmoday ne-naok’o phi ne-fendi.

          = The baby is twelve (Meamorian) months old (literally “three groups of four months”).

flok’ïdonoun (kato class)

Old Muipidan flo “lush”

  1. green

  2. greenery, vegetation

  3. Flok’odoproper noun (kup’o class)
    1. Flokodo city

    Flophïdoproper noun (phado class)
    1. Flopido region

    flophïyk’ïdonoun (kato class)

    Old Muipidan flophelo

    1. river valley

    ofloytosverb (sis class)
    1. (NOM V) (of plants and hair) to grow

    2. sindide m-ofloytonoun (nit’e class)
      1. growing season, from mid-winter to mid-spring


Old Muipidan foda

  1. next, following

  2. beyond

    1. (in kinship terms) grand-; one generation further

        ada fomodonoun (hmudo class)
        1. paternal grandfather

        ama fomodonoun (hmudo class)
        1. paternal grandmother

        noga fomodonoun (hmudo class)
        1. grandson (son’s son)

        pesi fomodonoun (hmudo class)
        1. granddaughter (son’s daughter)

fumuytonoun (moyto class)

Old Muipidan fu

(greater plural fuphïvumuyto)

  1. domestic dog

  2. fusudonoun (thudo class)
    1. wolf

fübüsüdenoun (thudo class)

Old Muipidan föbu

  1. mouse

füsümüdenoun (hmudo class)

Old Muipidan füso

  1. family, bloodline

  2. family name

hakhosverb (sis class)

Old Muipidan xakhus

  1. (NOM V ACC) to plant, to sow

  2. sindide ma-hakhonoun (nit’e class)
    1. planting season, from the fall equinox to late fall

hannosverb (klos class)

Old Muipidan xamnos “to put down”

  1. (NOM V ACC [DAT]) to leave (behind) [for]

  2. (NOM V ACC) to set down (a burden)


Old Muipidan xebe

  1. either… or…

heysüdenoun (thudo class)

Old Muipidan xele

  1. fire

hmekendenoun (kinde class)

Old Muipidan hme “word”

  1. given name

hmemüdenoun (hmudo class)

Old Muipidan hme

  1. younger brother

hmetadenoun (ndado class)

Old Muipidan hme

  1. daytime

  2. day (from one sunrise to the next)

  3. the daytime sky

  4. (adjective) blue

  5. hme fotadonoun (ndado class)
    1. tomorrow

hmeypütadenoun (ndado class)

Old Muipidan hmelpo, from hme “day” + po “previous”

  1. yesterday

  2. hmeype fotadonoun (ndado class)
    1. the day before yesterday

    2. a long time ago; once upon a time

hmiphïdenoun (phado class)

Old Muipidan hmi “sky”

  1. nighttime

  2. the night sky


Old Muipidan hmo

  1. distant

  2. widely separated

  3. Hmokodoproper noun (kup’o class)
    1. Hmokodo city

    Hmondïdoproper noun (nit’e class)
    1. Hmondido River

    Hmophïdoproper noun (phado class)
    1. Hmopido region

hmullïïytonoun (ayto class)

Old Muipidan hmumla

(indefinite hmulla)

  1. smile

  2. happiness, joy

hnet’adenoun (tak’o class)

Old Muipidan hne “animal track”

  1. road

hniyhnïsverb (klos class)


  1. to squeal; to make a loud, high-pitched sound

  2. (of a child) to whine, to scream

  3. (of a cat) to meow (loudly)

hnosverb (sis class)

Old Muipidan hnos “to creep”

  1. (NOM V) to move (slowly)

hnuïytonoun (ayto class)

Old Muipidan hnu

  1. chest

  2. hnut’ïdonoun (tak’o class)
    1. rib

hogaytonoun (ayto class)

Old Muipidan xoga “wheat plant”

  1. wheat grain

  2. hogak’ïdonoun (kato class)
    1. wheat plant


Old Muipidan xonu “ancestor”

  1. old, original

  2. Muypha Honophadoproper noun (phado class)
    1. Old Muipido

hovosverb (klos class)


  1. (NOM V [DAT]) (of a dog) to bark [at]

  2. hovotadonoun (ndado class)
    1. bark (from a dog)

    1. woof (imitation of a dog barking)

hubïsverb (sis class)

Old Muipidan xubis “to walk”

(infinitive hube, 2s hup’a)

  1. (NOM V) to go away, to leave

huhnusïphïdonoun (phado class)

Old Muipidan xuhnuse

  1. (written) character

  2. hupïhuhnusïphïdonoun (phado class)
    1. the Muipidan script

    2. official table of allowed characters

      There have been several official tables of characters released by the Muipidan government; the most important was the character table of -464, which limited the Muipidan script to 900 characters.

huphïbïsverb (sis class)

Old Muipidan xuphabis, from xubis “to walk”

  1. (NOM V) to go here and there, to wander, to roam

    1. (NOM V [DAT]) (of a religious leader) to tour the countryside, preaching to whoever will listen

  2. (NOM V) (of a river) to meander

  3. huphïbïskïndonoun (kinde class)
    1. travelling preacher

huyphïdonoun (phado class)

Old Muipidan xula “land”

  1. plot of arable land

  2. farm

iïytenoun (ayto class)

Old Muipidan ‘i

  1. eye

imisauxiliary verb

Old Muipidan himis “to reach”

(2s inga, negative ihmis)

  1. forms the optative of klos-class verbs

ip’ik’idenoun (kato class)

Old Muipidan ‘ip’e “wine”

  1. grape

  2. ip’itïdenoun (ndado class)
    1. wine

    ip’ik’üdenoun (kup’o class)
    1. bunch of grapes

    ip’indidenoun (nit’e class)
    1. grapevine

kadeaytenoun (ayto class)

Old Muipidan kadi

  1. neck

kahotadonoun (ndado class)

Old Muipidan kaxu “earth”

  1. clay, especially as a writing medium

  2. kahophadonoun (phado class)
    1. clay tablet

    kahokïndonoun (kinde class)
    1. scribe

    kahophïyk’ïdonoun (kato class)
    1. library

kasverb (sis class)

Old Muipidan kas

(2s ka, negative kaves)

  1. (auxiliary) forms the optative of myas- and sis-class verbs

  2. kakhosverb (sis class)
    1. (NOM V) to swell up

kaseytedenoun (k’ede class)

Old Muipidan kasila “bowl”

  1. spoon

  2. kaseykaseytedenoun (k’ede class)
    1. kitchenware

kaslahnesverb (sis class)

Old Muipidan kaslahnes “to defend, to support”

  1. (NOM V [DAT]) to cheer [for]

  2. (NOM V) to shout (excitedly, joyously)

kavesverb (sis class)

Old Muipidan kafis “to scrub”

(2s kaka)

  1. (NOM V [ACC]) to clean

  2. kakesüsverb (sis class)
    1. (NOM V [ACC]) to clean thoroughly, purify

    2. kakesügetedenoun (k’ede class)
      1. tongs designed to remove “unclean” organs, such as the intestines, from a dead body before it is ritually burned

Kaygekendeproper noun (kinde class)

Old Muipidan Kalagi, an ancient war god, influenced by kala “spear”

(addressed as Kaygemüs “thick Kaigi”)

  1. Kaigemis, the god of patriotic soldiers

kaytïdonoun (k’ede class)

Old Muipidan kala

  1. spear


Old Muipidan ke “this”

  1. one


Old Muipidan kedo “bent over, stunted”

  1. (of a person or animal) small, short

  2. (of a table, roof, etc.) low

kheaytenoun (ayto class)

Old Muipdian khe

  1. notch, scratch

khisverb (klos class)

Old Muipidan khis “to clear”

  1. (NOM V [ACC]) to remove, take away, to clear away

  2. (NOM V [GEN] [ACC]) to weed (GEN=location, ACC=plants being removed)

  3. (NOM V [GEN] [ACC]) to steal [from]

  4. khikhüsverb (klos class)
    1. (NOM V [GEN] [ACC]) to plunder [from], to ransack [from]

    sindide mï-khinoun (nit’e class)
    1. weeding season, late fall to mid-winter

Khoyphadoproper noun (phado class)

Old Muipidan Kholi, an early loan from Kharulian (compare Old Kharulian kazol, source of Kharulian carul)

  1. Kharul

khyusudonoun (thudo class)

Old Muipidan khihu, from khis “to clear”

  1. vulture

kibiïytenoun (ayto class)

Old Muipidan kibi

(plurals kiphibiïyte, kip’ïgibiïyte)

  1. head


Old Muipidan kima “hand”

  1. five

  2. kimïytenoun (ayto class)
    1. side

        • Kaytïdo es mï-kim ny-ohnosagophado.

          = The spear is next to the table.

    kimk’odo ne-thendinoun (kup’o class)

    (also just kimk’odo)

    1. birthday (at a multiple of five years)

    2. birthday celebration


    Old Muipidan tikima, from ti “one” + “kima” five

    1. six


    Old Muipidan mukima, from mu “two” (seen also in the dual suffix -mo

    1. seven


    Old Muipidan kosigima, from kos “three” (seen also in the paucal suffix -kos

    1. eight


    Old Muipidan nahigima, from naho ‘i kima “four and five”

    1. nine


    Old Muipidan kimmu, dual of kima “five”

    1. ten


    Old Muipidan kingos, from kima kos “three fives”

    1. fifteen

kïgoaytonoun (ayto class)

Old Muipidan këgo “arm”

  1. arm

  2. hand

kleslatadenoun (ndado class)

Old Muipidan klesla “molten copper”

  1. molten metal

  2. loda kleslak’edenoun (kato class)
    1. melting weed

      Melting weed is a mind-altering drug used in the religious ceremonies of many sects. It gets its name because many users describe the experience of being on the drug as “melting into the group” — becoming one with the other worshippers.

klukïndonoun (kinde class)

Old Muipidan klu “leader”

  1. monarch

    Both kings and queens regnant are referred to as klukïndo.


Old Muipidan koba

  1. good, high-quality

  2. valuable

kok’ïdonoun (kato class)

Old Muipidan ko

  1. olive

  2. kok’odonoun (kup’o class)
    1. olive tree

    kotadonoun (ndado class)
    1. olive oil

kongïkïndonoun (kinde class)

Old Muipidan kongi

  1. woman

  2. kongïmodonoun (hmudo class)
    1. wife


Old Muipidan ko “light”

  1. bright, shining

koysverb (myas class)

Old Muipidan kohis “to sleep”

  1. (NOM V) to rest

  2. (NOM V) to be inactive

  3. (serial) to stop

  4. sindide ma-koynoun (nit’e class)
    1. resting season, from early summer to the fall equinox

kunutïdonoun (ndado class)

Old Muipidan kuno “copper”

  1. bronze

kutïdonoun (ndado class)

Old Muipidan ku

  1. dust, sand

  2. kuphïyk’ïdonoun (kato class)
    1. desert

    2. training area for spearmen

k’asverb (sis class)

Old Muipidan k’as “to work on”

  1. (NOM V [ACC]) to make, to build

  2. k’anetadenoun (ndado class)

    Old Muipidan k’ani, nominalization of k’as

    1. project

    2. k’anekendenoun (kinde class)
      1. craftsperson, skilled labourer

      k’anenatadenoun (ndado class)
      1. idleness

      2. (as adjective) idle, short of work

k’aytïdonoun (k’ede class)

Old Muipidan k’a’i, from k’as “to work on”

  1. production tool

    This word applies to tools used for producing or creating things. It includes carpentry tools, paintbrushes, potter’s wheels, reed styli, etc. but excludes kitchen knives, brooms, measuring instruments, weapons, etc.

k’ebeaytenoun (ayto class)

Old Muipidan k’ebi

  1. fly

  2. follower of a sect that one disapproves of

k’esasüsverb (myas class)

Old Muipidan k’esasus

  1. (NOM V [LOC]) to be welcome [to], to be safe [in]


Old Muipidan k’e “sharp”

  1. hot, especially unpleasantly hot

  2. painfully cold


Old Muipidan k’o

  1. big

Lagendedeproper noun (nit’e class)

Old Muipidan Lage

  1. Lagendeda River

lahmodaysverb (sis class)

Old Muipidan lahmodanis “to pass by”

  1. (NOM V [GEN]) to experience, to go through

  2. (in perfect, NOM V GEN) to be X old

      • Hnan ne-lahmoday ne-thendi sey-kimme.

        = I’m thirty years old.

lamesverb (sis class)

Old Muipidan lames

(2s langa)

  1. (NOM V) to flow, to run

  2. (NOM V) to work, to function

  3. langïsosverb (sis class)
    1. (NOM V [GEN]) to overflow

    2. (NOM V GEN) to exceed

        • Kaykaytïdo langïsota ne-seme.

          = There are more than forty spears.

      1. (NOM V GEN) to be bigger than

          • Fumuyto langïsos ne-mwamoyto.

            = The dog is bigger than the cat.

      2. (NOM V GEN INSTR) to be more X than Y

          • Emüsüde langïsos nï-sovoayto ï-koay.

            = The sun is brighter than the moon.

      3. (NOM V INSTR) to be too X

          • Kaseytede nin langïsos ï-k’ote.

            = My spoon is too big.

lannasverb (sis class)

Old Muipidan lamnas

  1. to drift downstream

  2. to go away (slowly), to leave

Latyagek’üdeproper noun (kup’o class)

Old Muipidan Latliagi

  1. Latyagekida city

ledüsverb (sis class)

Old Muipidan ledus

(2s let’a)

  1. (NOM V) to move (quickly)

letlasverb (klos class)

Old Muipidan letlas

  1. (NOM V) to come (quickly)

  2. (NOM V) to help (with an emergency)

letmesverb (sis class)

Old Muipidan letmis

  1. (NOM V [INSTR]) to jump [over]

  2. (NOM V) to ascend (rapidly)

    1. (of a bird) to take off

    2. (of the sun) to rise

lihmümüdenoun (hmudo class)

Old Muipidan lihmuxe

  1. illegitimate child

  2. lihmük’idenoun (kato class)

    in Old Muipidan, this referred to any new apple cultivar, i.e. an apple tree that looked very different from its parents. It displaced the original word for apple, ko’i, as newer cultivars became more common.

    1. apple

    2. lihmük’üdenoun (kup’o class)
      1. apple tree


Old Muipidan lixu “child”

  1. newly made

  2. young

  3. fresh

lïaytonoun (ayto class)

Old Muipidan

  1. ear

lodak’ïdonoun (kato class)

Old Muipidan loda

  1. leaf

  2. headwaters

maleaytenoun (ayto class)

Old Muipidan mali

  1. nose

  2. ma-maleprepositional phrase
    1. (P GEN) at the tip of, at the end of


Old Muipidan ma’i, from ma “on” + ‘i “with”

  1. while, during

  2. amidst


Old Muipidan mala “light-coloured”

  1. yellow

mbundïdonoun (nit’e class)

Old Muipidan mbu

  1. strand of head hair

  2. mbuïytonoun (ayto class)
    1. top, upper surface

        • Fumuyto es mï-mbu ny-ohnosagophado.

          = The dog is on top of the table.

    mbuplïbundïdonoun (nit’e class)
    1. hair, head of hair

        • Mbuplïbo nis ï-twonde.

          = He has dark hair.

    2. hairstyle, haircut

meetadenoun (ndado class)

Old Muipidan me’e

  1. stone

megamüytenoun (moyto class)

Old Muipidan mega

  1. sheep

mesündedenoun (nit’e class)

Old Muipidan mesu

  1. spring, fountain

  2. source, origin

  3. beginning

  4. mesündede ne-thendedenoun (nit’e class)

    ”beginning of the year”, since the Muipidan calendar year begins on the fall equinox

    1. fall equinox

metüephadenoun (phado class)

Old Muipidan metohe, from me’e “stone” + tohe “life”

  1. statue depicting an important person or battle

met’esüsverb (myas class)

Old Muipidan met’isos, intensive of medas “to stand”

  1. (NOM V) to stand at attention

  2. (NOM V [INSTR]) to stand firm [on], to insist [on]

  3. (of a condition) to last, to persist

minïytonoun (ayto class)

Old Muipidan mina

  1. the small moon (Corthis)

  2. Minïkindeproper noun (kinde class)

    (addressed as Mintwo “dark Min”)

    1. Mintwo, the moon goddess

misverb (sis class)

Old Muipidan pmis

  1. (NOM V ACC) to hope for

  2. (NOM V ACC) to strive for

  3. (NOM V CLAUSE) to hope that

moaytonoun (ayto class)

Old Muipidan mo

  1. face

  2. nït-moprepositional phrase
    1. (P ACC) facing

        • Ngoymoyto es nït-mo o-slak’odo.

          = The pig is facing towards the hill.

    2. (P INSTR) about, regarding

        • Sihmüda mï-unïs nït-mo ü-ple nin.

          = The two of them were talking about my sister.

mollwasverb (klos class)

Old Muipidan molluhas, from molus “to make”

  1. (NOM V [ACC]) to try again

  2. (NOM V [ACC]) to repeat

  3. (serial) to do again

      • Fumuyto hnas nï-hovo mollwas.

        = The dog barked again.

moysverb (klos class)

Old Muipidan molus “to make”

(2s moyka)

  1. (NOM V) to be busy

  2. (NOM V ACC) to make

  3. (NOM V ACC) to finish, to deal with

    1. to castrate

  4. (auxiliary) forms the causative

  5. sï-moymoytonoun (moyto class)
    1. castrated animal


Old Muipidan mudis “to grasp”

(2s mut’a)

  1. (NOM V [ACC]) to twist, to turn

  2. (NOM V [ACC]) (to a person) to pressure, to compel


Old Muipidan muxe “strange”

  1. new, current, next

    Muipidan muhe is inherently contrastive; it describes the next or newest incarnation of something, as opposed to the outgoing or former incarnation. It can be used either shortly before, during, or shortly after the change.

      • Klukïn muhïkïndo imis o-moy osaytombada.

        = May the new king bring peace to us all. (This could reasonably be said either before or after the old king has died.)

  2. Muhïk’udoproper noun (kup’o class)
    1. Muhikudo city

    thendi muhïndïdonoun (nit’e class)
    1. (at the end of the year) next year

    2. (at the beginning of the year) this year

muyhumuytonoun (moyto class)

Old Muipidan mulxu, diminutive of muha “cat”

  1. kitten


Old Muipidan mule “favoured”

  1. blessed, fortunate, happy

  2. wise, talented

  3. Muyphïdoproper noun (phado class)
    1. Muipido

    Niyta Muytïdoproper noun (ndado class)
    1. the Muipidan language

    hmeta muytïdointerjection

    (usually just muyte informally)

    1. hello


Old Muipidan müso “tree trunk”

  1. thick, wide

  2. (of a person) tough, solid

mwamoytonoun (moyto class)

Old Muipidan muha

  1. cat


Old Muipidan medas “to stand”

(infinitive meda)

  1. (NOM V [DAT] LOC) to experience (a mental or emotional state) [towards]

  2. (auxiliary) forms the imperfect of myas-class verbs


Old Muipidan naho

  1. four


Old Muipidan na’a “missing”

  1. missing, absent

  2. (with infinitive) to not do

  3. (indefinite noun, ndado class) absence, lack, zero

ndak’odonoun (kup’o class)

Old Muipidan nda “heap”

  1. group of sixty

  2. (with genitive) sixty


Old Muipidan nda

  1. warm, especially pleasantly warm

negündedenoun (nit’e class)

Old Muipidan negu “branch”

  1. minor river

    Traditionally, this includes any river except the Lagendeda, Pandido, and Hmondido.

nehmatadenoun (ndado class)

Old Muipidan nehma “breastmilk”, also “bond between mother and child”

  1. familial love (including between spouses)

ngetadenoun (ndado class)

Old Muipidan nge

  1. wool

  2. ngek’üdenoun (kup’o class)
    1. cloud

ngoymoytonoun (moyto class)


  1. pig

  2. ngoymoyto ma-megak’enoun (moyto class)

    literally “pig in a flock of sheep”

    1. something that doesn’t belong in its environment

nikündidenoun (nit’e class)

Old Muipidan niko “history”

  1. time, history

  2. (indefinite) a long time, a while

nindidenoun (nit’e class)

Old Muipidan ni “river”

  1. major river

    Traditionally, this refers to the Lagendeda, Pandido, and Hmondido rivers. Speakers commonly use this to describe directions and locations, with reference to the nearest major river.

niyïytenoun (ayto class)

Old Muipidan nilo

  1. tongue

  2. niytïdenoun (ndado class)
    1. language

nodasverb (klos class)

Old Muipidan nodas

  1. (NOM V) to die

    This is the normal word for “to die”, used for example, in biographies, histories, and funerals. But in narrations or everyday conversations, speakers usually substitute osaytos “to fall asleep”.

nogakïndonoun (kinde class)

Old Muipidan noga

  1. boy

  2. nogamodonoun (hmudo class)
    1. son

nohnaaytonoun (ayto class)

Old Muipidan nohna

(sometimes nonnaayto, by folk etymology from nonnakïndo “baby”)

  1. woman’s breast

  2. ma-nohnprepositional phrase
    1. (P GEN) in front of, ahead of

nomaytonoun (ayto class)

Old Muipidan noma

  1. tooth

  2. mouth

nonnakïndonoun (kinde class)

Old Muipidan nomna’a, from noma “tooth” + na’a “absent”

  1. baby

nubut’ïdonoun (tak’o class)

Old Muipidan nubo “core”, also “bone inside a body”

  1. bone

  2. (of a plant or vegetable) interior, core

  3. (of an idea) meat, substance, theme

  4. nubutïdonoun (ndado class)
    1. bone (as a substance or building material)

odakïndonoun (kinde class)

Old Muipidan hoda “mask, character”

(plurals othodakïndo, ot’aodakïndo)

  1. person

  2. character (in a play)

  3. odamodonoun (hmudo class)
    1. family member, relative

odïsverb (klos class)

Old Muipidan ‘odis

(2s ot’a)

  1. (NOM V) to come

ohnosagophadonoun (phado class)

Old Muipidan ‘ohnosagu, from sagu “bread”

(sometimes clipped to ohnophado informally)

  1. table

osïbïsverb (myas class)

Old Muipidan ‘osibes “to be awake”

  1. (NOM V) to wake up


Old Muipidan hotmule “beautiful”

  1. (of a thing) nice, pleasant

  2. (of a person) good-looking, fair

palosverb (sis class)

Old Muipidan palos “to bite”

(2s payka)

  1. (NOM V [DAT]) to criticize

  2. paykïsosverb (sis class)
    1. (NOM V [DAT]) to be angry [at]


Old Muipidan pa “bone”

  1. white, light-coloured

  2. Pak’odoproper noun (kup’o class)
    1. Pakodo city

    Pandïdoproper noun (nit’e class)
    1. White (Pandido) River

payphadonoun (phado class)

Old Muipidan pali “flat”

  1. dry scrubland

pegeaytenoun (ayto class)

Old Muipidan pege

(plurals pekhegeayte, pek’abegeayte)

  1. louse

pehük’edenoun (kato class)

Old Muipidan pexu

  1. flower

pesekendenoun (kinde class)

Old Muipidan pese

  1. girl

  2. pesemüdenoun (hmudo class)
    1. daughter


Old Muipidan phi “that (over there)”

  1. three

plekasverb (klos class)


  1. (NOM V) to clap one’s hands

  2. (NOM V [DAT]) to slap, to smack

plemüdenoun (hmudo class)

Old Muipidan ple “sister”

  1. younger sister

puk’ïsusverb (myas class)

Old Muipidan puk’isos, from puges “to sag”

  1. (NOM V, of a person) to be weary, to be tired from prolonged hardship or work

  2. (NOM V, of a thing) to be worn out

  3. (NOM V, of an institution or social group) to be in decline

pumusverb (klos class)

Old Muipidan pumos “to poke”

  1. (NOM V [ACC]) to write

pundïbuïytonoun (ayto class)

Old Muipidan pundabu

  1. sandal

pungïsusverb (klos class)

Old Muipidan pungisos, intensive of pumos “to poke”

  1. (NOM V [DAT]) to bother, to annoy

pügisverb (klos class)

Old Muipidan püges “to harm”

  1. to frighten, to scare, to threaten

pyatadonoun (ndado class)

Old Muipidan pi’a

  1. romantic love (outside of marriage)

  2. affection, desire

p’ugïtïdonoun (ndado class)

Old Muipidan p’uge “itch, agitation”

  1. (of animals) estrus

  2. (of people, derogatory) romantic love

  3. lust, attraction

sadesverb (klos class)

Old Muipidan sades “to throw”

(2s sat’a)

  1. (NOM V [INSTR]) to give off

  2. (NOM V [ACC]) to shine [at], to glow

sagok’ïdonoun (kato class)

Old Muipidan sagu “bread”

  1. food

  2. prosperity

sahneymüdenoun (hmudo class)

Old Muipidan sahnilo

  1. father’s sister’s daughter (amitina)

salugïsk’udonoun (kup’o class)

Kharulian tsarug's

  1. collection of unique items


Old Muipidan sa “quiet”

  1. quiet, calm

  2. asleep

  3. osaytosverb (klos class)
    1. (NOM V) to settle down, to go quiet

      1. to fall asleep

      2. (in narration) to die


Old Muipidan senda “bubble”

(plurals sehnendayte, sembasendayte)

  1. ball, sphere

  2. rounded pottery cup

sevüsverb (sis class)

Old Muipidan sefos “to raise (a child)”

(2s seka)

  1. (NOM V [ACC]) to have a child, to beget

  2. sevühmüdamüdenoun (hmudo class)
    1. parents


Old Muipidan se’i

  1. twenty

  2. semenumeral

    Old Muipidan semu, dual of se’i “twenty”

    1. forty

siïytenoun (ayto class)

Old Muipidan si “elbow”

  1. elbow

  2. sindidenoun (nit’e class)
    1. bend in a river

    2. now

    3. time period

    4. time, instance

        • Adamo nin hnas sindi nao ne-pleka.

          = My father clapped four times.

    5. mï-sindideprepositional phrase
      1. (with present tense verb) now, at this moment

      2. (with future tense verb) soon

    sit’ïdenoun (tak’o class)
    1. ulna

sikhïytonoun (ayto class)

Old Muipidan sikha

  1. knee

  2. sikhït’ïdenoun (tak’o class)
    1. kneecap

sisverb (sis class)

Old Muipidan sidas

(infinitive sida)

  1. (auxiliary, NOM V LOC) forms the imperfect of sis-class verbs

sitlïsverb (klos class)

Old Muipidan sitlas “to approach”

  1. (NOM V [ACC]) to come (slowly), to approach

  2. (NOM V [LOC]) to gather [at]

  3. sitlïkütïk’üdenoun (kup’o class)
    1. place of worship

siytïdenoun (ndado class)

Old Muipidan sila

  1. water

  2. blood

  3. siytïde nï-toenoun (ndado class)
    1. blood, especially spilled blood

        • Kaytïdo moys phus t’opa ü-siytïde nï-toe.

          = The spear spilled his blood.

    siymïhündidenoun (nit’e class)

    Old Muipidan silmaxoxo, from sila “water” + maxoxo “roaring”

    1. waterfall

    2. life-altering event

    3. fifteenth birthday

slak’odonoun (kup’o class)

Old Muipidan sla

  1. hill, mountain

  2. group of 216,000 (60 cubed)

  3. slapheyphadenoun (phado class)
    1. foreign country

        • Hmemüde nin es ma-slapheypha.

          = My brother is abroad.

    2. (adjective) distant, far away

sloyhokïndonoun (kinde class)

Old Muipidan slolxu, diminutive of slo “paternal aunt”; the role of the older sister in raising children was likened to that of the father’s unmarried younger sisters

  1. older sister

somakïndonoun (kinde class)

Old Muipidan soma

(plurals sohmomakïndo, sombasomakïndo)

  1. god or goddess

sovoaytonoun (ayto class)

Old Muipidan sofo

  1. the large moon (Shiska)

  2. Sovokïndoproper noun (kinde class)

    (addressed as Sofko “bright Sof”)

    1. Sofko, the moon goddess


Old Muipidan suni

  1. red

süyk’edenoun (kato class)

Old Muipidan sölu

  1. meat, flesh

tagat’adonoun (tak’o class)

Old Muipidan taga

  1. stick

  2. tagakhetedenoun (k’ede class)
    1. ruler

    2. measured lengeth

    3. tagakhetede ma-hmotamnoun (k’ede class)
      1. length of the diagonal of a rectangle

      2. Pythagorean theorem

tedendedenoun (nit’e class)

Old Muipidan tedi

(plurals tethedendede, tet’adedendede)

  1. root

  2. (plural) mouth (of a river)

  3. destination

thendedenoun (nit’e class)

Old Muipidan the “summer”

  1. year

thesverb (klos class)

Old Muipidan thes “to take”

  1. (NOM V ACC) to hold, to keep

  2. (NOM V ACC) to own, to claim

  3. (serial) to continue, to keep

      • Emüsüde sades thes.

        = The sun keeps shining.

  4. thekhüsverb (klos class)
    1. (NOM V ACC) to steal

thethasverb (klos class)

Old Muipidan thethas “to gather up”

  1. (NOM V [ACC]) to harvest

  2. (NOM V [ACC]) to conscript

  3. sindide ma-thethanoun (nit’e class)
    1. harvest season, from mid-spring to early summer

thitïdenoun (ndado class)

Old Muipidan thi

  1. wood

  2. thip’ïvitïdenoun (ndado class)
    1. stockpile of wood

    thithimüdenoun (hmudo class)
    1. titi token (an object kept to honour a dead family member)

thok’odonoun (kup’o class)

Old Muipidan tho

  1. home, dwelling

thoyk’odonoun (kup’o class)

Old Muipidan tholu “granary”

  1. group of 3,600 (60 squared)

thulïsverb (sis class)

Old Muipidan thules

(infinitive thuy, 2s thuyka)

  1. to rise, to ascend

tibüïytenoun (ayto class)

Old Muipidan tibo “water pot”

(plurals tiphibüïyte, tip’ïdibüïyte)

  1. bowl

tigïsverb (klos class)

Old Muipidan tigas

  1. (NOM V [DAT]) to bless, to favour

  2. (NOM V [ACC]) to grant, to approve

  3. ni-tigïsprepositional phrase
    1. (about a past event) fortunately

    2. (about a future event) with luck, probably


Old Muipidan tixi

  1. cold


Old Muipidan tila “small”

  1. (of inanimate things) small

  2. (of ideas, issues) insignificant, unimportant

  3. tiytanoun
    1. (with genitive) a few, several


Old Muipidan to “that”

  1. two

tohasverb (klos class)

Old Muipidan toxas “to drop”

  1. (NOM V [ACC]) to make a mistake

  2. tohastadonoun (ndado class)
    1. insult, social blunder

    2. tohasmoytonoun (moyto class)
      1. faux pas

toïtadonoun (ndado class)

Old Muipidan tohe “breath”

  1. a person or animal’s life

  2. lifespan, lifetime

  3. the sanctity of a temple

  4. toïmoytonoun (moyto class)
    1. domestic animal

    toïsodonoun (thudo class)
    1. wild animal

tondamasverb (sis class)

Old Muipidan tondamas “to roll around”

  1. (NOM V) (of children or animals) to play, to frolic

  2. (NOM V DAT) to play with, to toy with

tosverb (myas class)

Old Muipidan tonus “to have”

(2s tonga, negative tohnïs, accusative o-ton, genitive and locative ndon)

  1. (auxiliary, NOM V PASS) forms the passive

  2. tongïsosverb (myas class)
    1. (NOM V [ACC]) to guard, to protect

    2. tongïsopadak’odonoun (kup’o class)
      1. the royal guards

      2. defense force, defenders

tubïytonoun (ayto class)

Old Muipidan tuba

  1. lungs

  2. tubïk’udonoun (kup’o class)
    1. (literary) raincloud, rainstorm

      This derivation is from the supposed function of the lungs in Muipidan philosophy: converting breathed air into water for the blood. By analogy, a raincloud supposedly converts air to water for rain.

tuhnïk’udonoun (kup’o class)

Old Muipidan tuhni “gathering, celebration”

  1. tavern


Old Muipidan tu’o

  1. dark, dim

t’aaytonoun (ayto class)

Old Muipidan t’a

  1. (bird’s) wing

  2. (fish’s) fin

t’ek’üdenoun (kup’o class)

Old Muipidan t’e

  1. base, bottom

  2. foundation

t’opasverb (klos class)


  1. (NOM V) to fall, to drop

t’uïytonoun (ayto class)

Old Muipidan t’u

  1. foot, leg

t’umhmïytonoun (ayto class)

Old Muipidan t’unhma “sneaking”

(indefinite t’umhma)

  1. care, caution, deliberation

  2. slowness

  3. (as adjective) slow, cautious


Old Muipidan ‘ugo

  1. black

unïsverb (sis class)

Old Muipidan hunes

  1. (NOM V [DAT]) to speak [to]

  2. ungïsusverb (sis class)
    1. (NOM V [DAT]) to shout [at]

    2. (NOM V DAT) to scold, to berate

    3. (NOM V [DAT]) to argue [with]

    4. ungïsuhmudïtïdonoun (ndado class)
      1. debate, argument

      ungïsukutïtïdonoun (ndado class)
      1. panel discussion

        This is a form of structured public discussion in which high-ranking followers of several different gods explain and debate how to properly react to situations in everyday life, according to that god’s teachings.

uvutïdonoun (ndado class)

Old Muipidan hufo

  1. mist, fog

uyk’udonoun (kup’o class)

Old Muipidan hulo

  1. (archaic) cloud