Kharulian Lexicon

Total entries: 232



















áarak /ˈaː.rak/ – askanimate noun

Old Kharulian òázak, agent nominalization of òas “to wet”

(oblique stem aask-)

  1. moving water

  2. rain

acy (akh) /aç/ – ayinanimate noun

Old Kharulian hash “tree”

  1. trunk (of a tree)

  2. main river (that a tributary flows into)

  3. main topic of a discussion or written passage

  4. Ómacy (Ómakh) /ˈo.maç/ – omayinanimate noun
    1. the portion of the Lagendeda river in Kharul

am /am/ – aminanimate noun

Old Kharulian am

  1. leaf

  2. the fifteenth letter of the alphabet, a

amácat (amákhat) /aˈma.xat/ – amakatinanimate noun

Old Kharulian amákat “mistake”

  1. (archaic) factual mistake

  2. (philosophy) invalid argument

  3. impressive-sounding but empty rhetoric

ánas /ˈa.nas/ – ansinanimate noun

Old Kharulian hánas

(oblique stem ans-)

  1. mist, fog

ankuée /anˈkʷeː/ – ankeinanimate noun

Old Kharulian ankahôe

(plural ankáai)

  1. wing

  2. feather

ar /ar/ – rverb

Old Kharulian ar “to avoid”

(irregular, inanimate il)

  1. to not do (something already mentioned)

  2. (in response to a polar question) no

  3. (auxiliary, with gnomic) forms the negative

ara /ˈa.ra/ – asaanimate noun

Old Kharulian a sa “faraway person”

  1. spirit being

  2. (referring to other cultures’ beliefs) god

árar /ˈa.rar/ – asrverb

Old Kharulian ázar “to leave, escape”

(suffixed stem azr-)

  1. to travel, to spend time abroad

  2. ázrak /ˈaz.rak/ – asrakanimate noun
    1. traveller

    2. (from 2nd century) scholar, especially of history and anthropology

auut /aˈuːt/ – autnoun

Old Kharulian haóhot “opening”

  1. sunrise

  2. aúudum sanautum sanpostpositional phrase
    1. eastward, east of

    auutiaru /a.uːˈtʃ – autasuinanimate noun

    Old Kharulian haóhotii tazo “other side of sunrise”

    1. tomorrow

cádzar (khádzar) /ˈxa.dzar/ – xatrverb

Old Kharulian kádar

(suffixed stem catr-)

  1. to fight

cajió (khaghió) /xaˈʝo/ – kjoverb

Old Kharulian kazhô “to wash”; the sense of “to weed” is calqued from Muipidan

(1s magwjió, 3s icyko, 3p íklajio)

  1. to clean, to clean up

  2. to weed

  3. ánkajiool alnagwjiora (ánkaghiool alnagghiora) /ˈan.ka.ʝɔːɫ aɫ.naɡʷˈʝo.ra/ – ankjoh ahnkjosaparticiple

    calqued from Muipidan sindide mï-khi

    1. weeding season, late fall to mid-winter

caluée (khaluée) /xaˈɫeː/ – xheinanimate noun

Old Kharulian kalái “cooking fire”

  1. pottery kiln

candojy (khandogh) /xanˈdɔʝ/ – kntojverb

Old Kharulian kandôy, from kan “along” + tòy “breathe”, referring to the belief that a father “breathes” part of his soul into his sons

(1s mag’ndojy, 3s ink’dojy, 3p iklandojy)

  1. to father (a son)

cap (khap) /xap/ – kapverb

Old Kharulian kap “to understand”

  1. to read

  2. (especially protractive) to study

cárak (khárak) /ˈxa.rak/ – xaskanimate noun

Old Kharulian shòázak, agent nominalization of shòas “to drench”

(oblique stem cask-)

  1. flood, deluge

  2. floodplain

carat (kharat) /xaˈrat/ – kstverb

Old Kharulian kazat “to cut, to be sharp”

(1s magzat, 3s iskat, 3p iklarat, suffixed stem cazd-)

  1. to be rough, abrasive

  2. sag’zd’rá (sagazdará) /sa.gəz.dəˈra/ – skstsainanimate noun

    (plural usk’d’rá , indeclinable)

    1. consonant

carul (kharul) /xaˈruɫ/ – ksuhverb

Old Kharulian kazol, literally “to own land”, from kas “land” + -ol “to own”

(1s magzul, 3s iskul, 3p iklarul)

  1. to be a citizen (of Kharul), to be Kharulian

  2. (inanimate noun) Kharul, the Kharulian people

  3. iskul /isˈkuɫ/ – iksuhanimate noun

    3rd person singular of carul, from Old Kharulian iskol

    1. citizen (of Kharul)

    2. Iskulip’t (Iskulípat) /is.kuˈlʲi.pət/ – iksuhiptinanimate noun

      iskuli “citizen’s” + -p’t, suffix for languages, from Old Kharulian pat “speech”

      1. the Kharulian language

cas (khas) /xas/ – xasinanimate noun

Old Kharulian kas “land”

  1. material possessions

  2. estate

cia (khia) /ça/ – ypostposition

Old Kharulian sha

  1. on, at

cia (khia) /ça/ – yverb

Old Kharulian sha

  1. to make

  2. (inanimate noun) the twentienth letter of the alphabet, y

ciaa (khiaa) /çaː/ – yaanimate noun

Old Kharulian shèha “wife”

  1. consort

ciagluée (khiagluée) /çagˈɫeː/ – ykheanimate noun

Old Kharulian shaglái “destructive fire”

  1. fire

ciamair (khiamair) /ça.maˈir/ – ymairverb

Old Kharulian shamair “to understand”

(1s majymair, 3s imwciair, 3p iclyamair, suffixed stem ciamueer-)

  1. (intransitive) to think, ponder

  2. (transitive) to consider, think about

  3. (with complement clause) to deduce that, to infer that

ciamíi (khiamíi) /çaˈmiː/ – ymiverb

Old Kharulian shamihi “to delight”

(1s majymíi, 3s imcíi, 3p iclyamíi, suffixed stem ciami-)

  1. to be sweet

  2. to be pleasant

  3. sajmíi (saghmíi) /saʝˈmiː/ – symiinanimate noun
    1. date (fruit)

ciamúa (khiamúa) /çaˈmu.a/ – ymuaverb

Old Kharulian shamúa

(1s maghmúa, 3s imkha, suffixed stem ciama-, imperfective -ciamúee, perfective -ciamuée)

  1. to fill (a container)

  2. (of a light) to be bright

  3. (of a sound) to be loud

cianul (khianul) /çaˈnuɫ/ – ynuhstative verb

Old Kharulian shanol “to be complete”

(1s majynul, 3s inwciul)

  1. to be well, to be in good shape

  2. ity’jynúlan (ichighnúlan) /i.tʃəʝˈnu.ɫan/ – iqynuhaninterjection

    literally “we are well”

    (itykanwciúlan when addressing one person; usually jy’nul informally either way)

    1. hello

ciar (khiar) /çar/ – yrverb

Old Kharulian shar “to crave”

  1. to want

ciáral (khiáral) /ˈça.raɫ/ – yashstative verb

Old Kharulian sheázal

(suffixed stem ciazl-)

  1. to be smooth

  2. to be calm

  3. ciázlak (khiázlak) /ˈçaz.ɫak/ – yashakanimate noun

    Old Kharulian sheázlak “apprentice”, literally “smooth one”, since they hadn’t yet developed the calluses of working with their hands

    1. apprentice

    2. junior member of a group

      1. (in academy) junior student

    sajiázlara (saghiázlara) /saˈʝaz.ɫa.ra/ – syaslsainanimate noun

    (plural ujiázlara, indeclinable)

    1. vowel letter

    2. “prominent” vowel sound

ciaus (khiaus) /çaˈus/ – yusverb

Old Kharulian shahoos “stare at, watch”

(1s majius, 3s icius, 3p iclius)

  1. to look at, to watch

  2. to be near, to be in the presence of

  3. ciaglueecius (khiaglueekhius) /ça.ɡɫeːˈçus/ – ykheyusstative verb

    literally “to be near the fire”

    1. to be comfortable, cozy

    2. to feel safe

ciókot (khiókot) /ˈço.kɔt/ – yokotinanimate noun

Old Kharulian shôkòt “closing”

  1. sunset

  2. ciókodom san (khiókodom san) – yokotom sanpostpositional phrase
    1. westward, west of

cioo (khioo) /çoː/ – yoverb

Old Kharulian shaho “give away”

  1. to lose, to be deprived of

  2. to lack

  3. to sacrifice

cu (khu) /xu/ – xuanimate noun

Old Kharulian shuu

  1. salt

  2. the seventeenth letter of the alphabet, x

cuéclet (khuékhlet) /ˈxʷɛç.lʲɛt/ – xeyletinanimate noun

Old Kharulian shòêshlèt, from shòêzhèl “reveal”

  1. flower

  2. pleasantly surprising news

cuin (khuin) /xʷin/ – xinanimate noun

Old Kharulian shoen

  1. wind

dzaku /ˈdza.ku/ – takuinanimate noun

Old Kharulian dako, from Old Muipidan ndak’o “heap”

  1. sixty

e /e/ – everb

Old Kharulian è

  1. to eat

  2. (inanimate noun) the twenty-third letter of the alphabet, e

  3. et /ɛt/ – etinanimate noun
    1. food

eev /eːβ/ – evinanimate noun

Old Kharulian hiaw

(plural iijui)

  1. olive

ejav (eghav) /eˈɣaβ/ – ekavinanimate noun

Old Kharulian ègaw

(plural egejui)

  1. louse

éket /ˈe.cɛt/ – ecetanimate noun

Old Kharulian êkèt

  1. animal spirit

fa /ɸa/ – pverb

Old Kharulian pa

  1. to speak

  2. (inanimate noun) the twenty-fourth letter of the alphabet, p

  3. fat /ɸat/ – ptinanimate noun
    1. speech

    2. language

facy (fakh) /ɸaç/ – fayanimate noun

Old Kharulian pash

  1. star

  2. (inanimate) the second letter of the alphabet, f

fadur /ɸaˈdur/ – fturverb

Old Kharulian padur

(1s mavdur, 3s iftur, 3p ifladur)

  1. (of a person) to feel warm

  2. (of an object or substance) to melt

fagé /ɸaˈɟe/ – fceverb

Old Kharulian paghê

(1s mavge, 3s ifke)

  1. (of a person) to accept, to approve of, to take on

  2. (of a statement) to accept, to agree with

fajió (faghió) /ɸaˈʝo/ – fajoinanimate noun

Old Kharulian pazhôò

  1. wood

  2. fajioli (faghioli) /ɸaˈʝo.lʲi/ – fajolianimate noun

    (plural fajiólel)

    1. plant spirit

    2. fajióliam (faghióliam) /ɸaˈʝo.lʲam/ – fajoliaminanimate noun

      literally “plant-spirit leaf”; they were believed to work by inviting the plant’s spirit into the body to perform healing

      1. medicinal plant

      2. medicine

fal /ɸal/ – phverb

Old Kharulian pal “to seize”

  1. to grip, to squeeze, to hold tightly

  2. sablon /sabˈɫɔn/ – sphoninanimate noun

    (plural uplon, indeclinable)

    1. “tight” (palatalized) consonant

fan /ɸan/ – pnverb

Old Kharulian pan

(acts as a double-consonant verb when suffixes are present: 1s progressive mábnan, 3s progressive impy’n)

  1. to go

faú /ɸaˈu/ – puverb

Old Kharulian pahó “to throw”

(1s mabú, 3s ipiú, 3p ipliú)

  1. to put, to set

  2. to put down, to leave behind

f’liopuik’t (faliopuíkat) /ɸə.lʲoˈpˠi.kət/ – flopiktinanimate noun

Muipidan flophïyk'ïdo

  1. river valley

i /i/ – iverb

Old Kharulian ii

  1. to be at

  2. (inanimate noun) the nineteenth letter of the alphabet, i

Idiu (Iju) /ˈi.dʒu/ – iquanimate noun

Old Kharulian Idio

  1. a common second family name

ijuil (ighuil) /iˈɣʷiɫ/ – iwihinanimate noun

Old Kharulian ezhuil

  1. night

  2. ijuilui muéefanat (ighuilui muéefanat) /iˈɣʷi.ɫi ˈmˠeː.ɸa.nat/ – iwihi mepntinanimate noun

    Literally “night’s overtaking”

    (oblique stem ijuilui muéefant-)

    1. fall equinox

ily’t (ílit) /ˈi.lʲət/ – iltinanimate noun

Old Kharulian íilit “emptiness”, from iil “to be empty”

(oblique stem iti-)

  1. hole

  2. gap, opening

  3. vowel sound that disappears in some forms of a word

iolesan /i.o.lʲeˈsan/ – iolesaninanimate noun

Nitherian yolesano, literally “that is being given away”

  1. (after numeral, from 7th century) negative

irok /iˈrɔk/ – irokanimate noun

Old Kharulian izòk “predator”, from izò “devour”

  1. cougar

it /it/ – itanimate noun

Old Kharulian it

  1. sun

iv /iβ/ – ivanimate noun

Old Kharulian iw

  1. blood

izy’t (ízhit) /ˈi.ʒət/ – iztverb

Old Kharulian íizit

(suffixed stem ist-)

  1. to bite

jemzim (ghemzhim) /ˈʝɛm.ʒim/ – jemzimquantifier

Old Kharulian yèmsim, from yam sim, literally “or else one”

  1. any, whatever

jérecy (ghérekh) /ˈʝe.ɹ̠ʲɛç/ – jedyverb

Old Kharulian yêrèsh

(suffixed stem jecry-)

  1. to drink

  2. kiurjérecy (kiurghérekh) /cuɹ̠ʲˈʝe.ɹ̠ʲɛç/ – curjedyverb

    literally “to face-drink”, i.e. intoxicate oneself on someone’s appearance

    (suffixed stem kiurjécry-)

    1. to be romantically attracted to, to lust for

    2. to have a love affair with

jiaa (ghiaa) /ʝaː/ – jaadjective

Old Kharulian yôa

  1. old (of inanimates only)

jiam (ghiam) /ʝam/ – jaminanimate noun

Old Kharulian yam

  1. one

Jibí (Ghibí) /ʝiˈbi/ – jipianimate noun

Old Kharulian Yebiih

  1. a common second family name

jin (ghin) /ʝin/ – jinanimate noun

Old Kharulian yen

  1. woman

  2. the seventh letter of the alphabet, j

jue (ghue) /ɣʷe/ – weanimate noun

Old Kharulian

  1. goat

  2. (inanimate) the twelfth letter of the alphabet, w

juemi (ghuemi) /ˈɣʷe.mʲi/ – wemiverb

Old Kharulian wèmii

  1. to take apart, dismantle

  2. to argue for, to advocate

  3. (mathematics) to prove

  4. anjuémiil alnajuemira (anghuémiil alnaghuemira) /anˈɣʷe.miːɫ aɫ.na.ɣʷeˈmi.ra/ – anwemih ahnawemisaparticiple
    1. friendly debate (between intellectuals)

kebáit /ceˈ – cepaitanimate noun

Muipidan k'ebeayte “follower of a disapproved sect”, literally “fly”

(oblique stem kebáit- (no voicing))

  1. follower of a religious sect, especially a Muipidan sect

kezip (kezhip) /ceˈʒip/ – czipverb

Old Kharulian kèziip “to carve”

(1s magzip, 3s iskip, 3p iklezip)

  1. to write

ki /ci/ – ciinanimate noun

Old Kharulian ki

  1. mouth

kiur /cur/ – curinanimate noun

Old Kharulian keur

  1. (person’s) face

kiv /ciβ/ – civanimate noun

Old Kharulian kíu

  1. snake

  2. (inanimate) the thirteenth letter of the alphabet, c

kívim /ˈci.βim/ – civiminanimate noun

Old Kharulian kiwem

  1. nothing

ko /ko/ – koinanimate noun

Old Kharulian

  1. wheat

  2. the fourteenth letter of the alphabet, k

kótron /ˈkɔt.rɔn/ – kotroninanimate noun

Old Kharulian kôtròn

  1. bone

  2. (of a building, plural) structure, stability

      • Marui kótrony umat

        = The house is well-built

  3. (of an institution, plural) framework, foundation

kúi /ˈku.i/ – kuiinanimate noun

Old Kharulian kohi, from Old Muipidan kohi (source of Muipidan koys)

  1. (of land) to be unused, to be inactive

  2. úa sagúira /ˈu.a saˈɡu.i.ra/ – ua skuisaparticiple

    calqued from Muipidan sindide ma-koy

    1. resting season, from early summer to the fall equinox

kuiiluee (kuiiluee) /ˈkʷiː.ɫeː/ – kiheinanimate noun

Old Kharulian kôylae, from genitive of “wheat” + lae “grass”

  1. crop

kuim /kʷim/ – kiminanimate noun

Old Kharulian koim

  1. rope

kun /kun/ – kunanimate noun

Old Kharulian kwoon

  1. dog

la /ɫa/ – hverb

Old Kharulian la

  1. to give

  2. (inanimate noun) the twenty-second letter of the alphabet, h

lébel /ˈlʲe.bʲɛl/ – lephverb

Old Kharulian lêbèl “to gather”

(suffixed stem lepl-)

  1. to put away, to store

  2. to put in (a container, in dative)

legí /lʲeˈɟi/ – deciinanimate noun

Old Kharulian lègí

  1. tendon, sinew

lejpiú (leghpiú) /lʲɛʝˈpʲu/ – lcpuverb

Old Kharulian lègipihó, from lègí “sinew” + pahó “throw”

(1s malgy’piú, 3s ikly’piú)

  1. to shoot (with a bow)

    The direct object is the projectile; the target of the shooting takes the dative

  2. anzalgy’piú (anzalgipiú) /an.zalʲ.ɟəˈpʲu/ – ansalcpuinanimate noun
    1. archery target

    2. anzalgy’piújy (anzalgipiugh) /an.zalʲ.ɟəˈpʲuʝ/ – ansalcpujinanimate plural noun
      1. archery range

lezim (lezhim) /lʲeˈʒim/ – lzimverb

Old Kharulian lèzim

(1s malzim, 3s izlim)

  1. to sleep

lía (lía) /ˈlʲi.a/ – liaverb

Old Kharulian lía

(4s elnía)

  1. to plant, to sow

  2. elníaal alnelíara /ɛlʲˈɲi.aːɫ alʲ.ɲeˈlʲi.a.ra/ – egliah algliasaparticiple

    calqued from Muipidan sindide ma-hakho

    1. planting season, from the fall equinox to late fall

Liagenduet (Liagendet) /lʲa.ɟɛnˈdɛt/ – lcentetinanimate noun

Muipidan Lagendede

  1. upper Lagendeda river

liat /lʲat/ – latinanimate noun

Old Kharulian liat

  1. seed

  2. the sixteenth letter of the alphabet, l

lióbor /lʲo.bɔr/ – loprinanimate noun

Old Kharulian lèôbòr “enclosure, paddock”, extended to “collection of small buildings enclosed by a wall”, the typical format of early academies

(oblique stem liopr-)

  1. academy

luee /ɫeː/ – heinanimate noun

Old Kharulian láe

  1. grass

luee /ɫeː/ – heinanimate noun

Old Kharulian lái

  1. three

l’gos (lagos) /ɫəˈɡɔs/ – hkosinanimate noun

Old Kharulian lugòs “chair”

  1. throne

  2. capital

  3. Tézl’gos (Chézlagos) /ˈtʃɛz.ɫə.ɡɔs/ – qeshkosinanimate noun

    literally “New Capital”, because it replaced Vurili as the capital

    1. Chezlagos, the capital of Kharul since -880

malium /maˈlʲum/ – mlumverb

Old Kharulian malèum “to drop”

(1s mamlium, 3s ilmium)

  1. to let go, to release

  2. samliúmon /samʲˈlʲu.mɔn/ – smlumoninanimate noun

    (plural ulmiúmon, indeclinable)

    1. “loose” (unpalatalized/velarized/labialized) consonant

mas /mas/ – masinanimate noun

Old Kharulian mas

  1. house

  2. the eighteenth letter of the alphabet, m

mat /mat/ – matadjective

Old Kharulian mat

  1. good

    1. high-quality, valuable

    2. skilful

mebí /mʲeˈbi/ – mepianimate noun

Old Kharulian mèbí

  1. father

mi /mi/ – miverb

Old Kharulian mii

  1. to ask (someone to do something)

micy (mikh) /miç/ – miyinanimate noun

Old Kharulian miish

  1. rain

  2. micyla (mikhla) /miçɫa/ – miyhaverb
    1. (with 4s subject) to rain

        • Anmícylan

          = It’s raining

    micykap (mikhkap) /miçˈkap/ – miykapanimate noun

    Literally “student of the rain”, originally an insult

    1. (from 6th century) A scholar (ázrak) who lives among the poor in a region to study their culture

muee /mˠeː/ – mepostposition

Old Kharulian mái “facing”

  1. in front of, ahead of

  2. muéefan /ˈmˠeː.ɸan/ – mepnphrasal verb (muée + fan)
    1. to pass, to overtake

    2. to have an advantage, to have the upper hand

mues /mˠɛs/ – messtative verb

Old Kharulian muès

  1. to be flat, shallow, thin

  2. samuéron /saˈmˠe.rɔn/ – smesoninanimate noun

    (plural umuéron, indeclinable)

    1. (sheet of) papyrus

mur’n (múran) /ˈmu.rən/ – musnanimate noun

Old Kharulian múzun

(oblique stem munz-, m’nz- when unstressed)

  1. river

  2. múnzum anmusnum anpostpositional phrase
    1. (north of the Lagendeda, or from 4th century) southward, south of

    2. (south of the Lagendeda) northward, north of

    Lueemur’n (Lueemúran) /ɫeːˈmu.rən/ – hemusninanimate noun

    Old Kharulian lai múzun “three rivers”

    1. Muipido

na /na/ – nverb

Old Kharulian na

  1. (archaic) to go

  2. (inanimate noun) the twenty-first letter of the alphabet, n

na /na/ – npostposition

From the verb “to go”

  1. towards

naruée /naˈrˠeː/ – nareinanimate noun

Old Kharulian naráe

  1. meat, flesh

naruim /naˈrˠim/ – nrimverb

Old Kharulian naruem

(1s manruim, 3s irnuim)

  1. to arrive, to come

není /ɲeˈɲi/ – gegianimate noun

Old Kharulian nèní

  1. mother

ni /ɲi/ – gistative verb

Old Kharulian ni “to shine”

  1. to be white

  2. (inanimate noun) the fifth letter of the alphabet, g

nial /ɲaɫ/ – gahinanimate noun

Old Kharulian nèhal

  1. hill

niazliu (niazhliu) /ˈɲaʒ.lʲu/ – gazluanimate noun

Old Kharulian nèaslèu

  1. fish

nibui /ˈɲi.bˠi/ – gipiinanimate noun

Old Kharulian nebòi “small hole”

(oblique stem nibojy-)

  1. small (especially wooden) cup, used for spices and medicines

niodza /ˈɲo.dza/ – gotaanimate noun

Old Kharulian nèhòda

  1. heart

niv /ɲiβ/ – givanimate noun

Old Kharulian níuu

(oblique stem niu-)

  1. cloud

nuiin /nˠiːn/ – ninanimate noun

Old Kharulian noiien

  1. wife

nuil /nˠiɫ/ – nihinanimate noun

Old Kharulian nuel

  1. given name

  2. word

  3. nuji nuil (nughi nuil) /ˈnu.ʝi nˠiɫ/ – nuji nihinanimate noun
    1. given name inherited from an ancestor

nuim /nˠim/ – nimverb

Old Kharulian nuem “to bring”

  1. to carry, to hold

  2. to own

  3. to be responsible for

nuíril /nˠi.ɹ̠ʲiɫ/ – nidhverb

Old Kharulian nòérel “straight”

(suffixed stem nuírl-)

  1. to be correct, approved

  2. to be elegant, refined

nujy (nugh) /nuʝ/ – nujanimate noun

Old Kharulian nói “family”

(dative nuim)

  1. bloodline

  2. family name

  3. ámam nujy (ámam nugh) – amam nujanimate noun
    1. second, less specific family name (“leaf name”)

    siórom nujy (shórom nugh) – zorom nujanimate noun
    1. first, more specific family name (“branch name”)

    matnujy (matnugh) /matˈnuʝ/ – matnujanimate noun
    1. family name shared by someone notable

      Often used attributively as a dative, e.g. matnuim sa “auspiciously named person”

Ny’lup’t (Nilúpat) /ɲəˈɫu.pət/ – ghuptinanimate noun

Old Kharulian nilopët, from Old Muipidan nilo “tongue” (source of Muipidan niyïyte) + -p’t, suffix for languages, from Old Kharulian pat “speech”

  1. the Muipidan language

o /o/ – oinanimate noun

Old Kharulian ò

  1. eye

  2. the ninth letter of the alphabet, o

om /ɔm/ – omadjective

Old Kharulian òm

  1. big

os /ɔs/ – osconjunction

Old Kharulian òs

  1. and

      • Ilel ko os tiry itlului

        = They gave us wheat and apples

pélecy (pélekh) /ˈpe.lʲɛç/ – peylinanimate noun

Old Kharulian pêlèsh “elbow”

(oblique stem pecly-)

  1. arm

  2. elbow

pius /pʲus/ – pusinanimate noun

Old Kharulian peos

  1. basket

pocy (pokh) /poç/ – poyinanimate noun

Old Kharulian pòsh

  1. twenty-five

pucylui (pukhlui) /ˈpuç.ɫi/ – puyhiinanimate noun

Old Kharulian pushloe

(oblique stem p’cyluí-)

  1. chest, breast

puir /pˠir/ – pirinanimate noun

Old Kharulian puir

  1. hand

  2. puirizy’t (puirízhit) /pˠi.ɹ̠ʲi.ʒət/ – piriztverb

    Literally “hand-bite”, on the metaphor of an animal biting the hand of someone trying to pet it or feed it

    1. to be defensive, to snap at

    2. (philosophy) to resort to insults in a debate

    puirlezim (puirlezhim) /pˠiɹ̠ʲ.lʲeˈʒim/ – pirlzimverb

    Literally “hand-sleep”

    1. to be idle, to be unoccupied

puzy (puzh) /puʒ/ – puzinanimate noun

Old Kharulian puzi

  1. grape

ra /ra/ – rverb

Old Kharulian ra

  1. (archaic) to want

  2. (inanimate noun) the last letter of the alphabet, r

rajiam (raghiam) /raˈʝam/ – rjmverb

Old Kharulian razham

(1s marwjiam, 3s ícyram, 4s árnajiam, suffixed stem rajym-)

  1. to burn

  2. to be hot (to the touch)

  3. to shine

  4. rajymat (raghmat) /raʝˈmat/ – rjmatinanimate noun
    1. full moon, especially Shiska, the large moon

    2. month (of 17 or 18 days)

    3. ugenrajymat (ugenraghmat) /u.ɟɛn.raʝˈmat/ – ucenrjmatinanimate noun

      Calque of Muipidan naok'odo ne-fendi “four months”

      1. season (of four months)

rerí /ɹ̠ʲeˈɹ̠ʲi/ – ddiverb (dative subject)

Old Kharulian rèrí “to tremble”

  1. to fear, to be afraid

riafsiú (riafshú) /ɹ̠ʲaɸˈʃu/ – dfzuinanimate noun

The first four letters of the alphabet pronounced as a word

  1. Kharulian alphabet

ricy (rikh) /ɹ̠ʲiç/ – diystative verb

Old Kharulian rish

  1. to be cold (to the touch)

riun /ɹ̠ʲun/ – dunanimate noun

Old Kharulian riun

  1. the large moon (Shiska)

  2. (inanimate) the first letter of the alphabet, d

ros /rɔs/ – rosverb (dative subject)

Old Kharulian ròs “to lack”

  1. to lack, to need

ruiby’s (ruíbis) /rˠi.bʲəs/ – rispinanimate noun

Old Kharulian ròíbis

(oblique stem ruisp-)

  1. tongue

  2. language

rum /rum/ – rumanimate noun

Old Kharulian ruum

  1. cat

rut /rut/ – rutinanimate noun

Old Kharulian ruot

  1. five

ry’rok (rirok) /ɹ̠ʲə.ˈrɔk/ – drokanimate noun

Old Kharulian rizòk, from rizò “to engross oneself in one’s work”, detransitive of izò “to devour”

  1. scholar

sa /sa/ – sanimate noun

Old Kharulian sa

  1. person

  2. (inanimate) the sixth letter of the alphabet, s

sajy (sagh) /saʝ/ – sajinanimate noun

Old Kharulian sòáy

(genitive suee)

  1. blue

sálat /ˈ – saltinanimate noun

Old Kharulian suálat “issue, matter”

(oblique stem sati-)

  1. thing, object, item

  2. idea, concept

  3. complaint, grievance

sanú /saˈnu/ – snuverb

Old Kharulian sanúu “to flow”

(1s maznú, 3s inzu, 3p ízlanu)

  1. to run

se (she) /ʃe/ – zeinanimate noun

Old Kharulian “noon”

(plural stem sii-)

  1. afternoon

  2. daytime

  3. (time period) day

  4. the third letter of the alphabet, z

  5. sejy muéefanat (shegh muéefanat) /ʃɛʝ ˈmˠeː.ɸa.nat/ – zei mepntNone

    literally “day’s overtaking”

    (oblique stem sejy muéefant-)

    1. spring equinox

segiby’m (shegíbim) /ʃeˈɟi.bʲəm/ – zecimpinanimate noun

Old Kharulian sègíibim “carving tool”

(oblique stem segimp-)

  1. writing implement, especially a reed pen

senir (shenir) /ʃeˈɲir/ – zegirinanimate noun

Old Kharulian sèniir

  1. nose

si (shi) /ʃi/ – zipostposition

Old Kharulian sii

  1. in

sior (shor) /ʃɔr/ – zorinanimate noun

Old Kharulian siòr

  1. branch (of a tree)

  2. tributary

  3. ancestor

  4. úsior (úshor) /ˈu.ʃɔr/ – uzorinanimate noun

    literally “earth branch” (see úa)

    1. root (of a tree)

    2. (plural) bottom (of a structure), foundation

    3. (plural) mouth (of a river), delta

    4. destination

    5. purpose, goal

    6. descendent

siur’p (shurap) /ˈʃu.rəp/ – zuspanimate noun

Old Kharulian sèúzup

(oblique stem siusp-)

  1. eagle

somi /ˈso.mʲi/ – somiverb

Old Kharulian sòmii “to support”

  1. to love (within family)

soz’m’sy (sózamash) /ˈso.zə.məʃ/ – sosmzinanimate noun

Nitherian sozmslo, literally “they aren’t here”

  1. (from 7th century) zero

suimínduit (simíndit) /sˠiˈmʲin.dˠit/ – simintitinanimate noun

Muipidan siymïhündide

  1. waterfall

  2. a purification ritual performed at some fifteenth birthday celebrations, involving pouring water over the head of the person turning fifteen

sutia (sucha) /ˈsu.tʃa/ – suqaverb

Old Kharulian sucha

  1. to harvest

  2. anzútiaal alnarútiara (anzúchaal alnarúchara) /anˈzu.tʃaːɫ aɫ.naˈru.tʃa.ra/ – ansuqah ahnsuqasaparticiple

    calqued from Muipidan sindide ma-thetha

    1. harvest season, from mid-spring to early summer

s’laku (salaku) /səˈɫa.ku/ – shakuinanimate noun

Old Kharulian sëlako, from Old Muipidan slak’o “hill”, used to mean “a large number”

  1. 216,000 (60 cubed)

teny (chen) /tʃɛɲ/ – qeganimate noun

Old Kharulian tèni

  1. bear

tes (ches) /tʃɛs/ – qesadjective

Old Kharulian tès

  1. new

Tial (Chal) /tʃaɫ/ – qahanimate noun

Old Kharulian Tèal

  1. a common second family name

tiit (chiit) /tʃiːt/ – qitverb

Old Kharulian tííhit

  1. to begin (a task, journey, etc.)

  2. to be born

  3. (of the sun) to rise

tir (chir) /tʃir/ – qirinanimate noun

Old Kharulian ter “fruit”

  1. apple

  2. the eighth letter of the alphabet, q

tójiot (tóghiot) /ˈto.ʝɔt/ – tojtanimate noun

Old Kharulian tôyòt “breath, spiritual being”

(oblique stem tuiit-)

  1. helpful spirit

tsajiojy (tsaghiogh) /tsaˈʝɔʝ/ – tjojverb

Old Kharulian tazhôy “to cough”

(1s madwjiojy, 3s icytojy, 3p itlajiojy)

  1. to be sick

tsamas /ˈtsa.mas/ – tamsinanimate noun

Old Kharulian tamas, collective of mas “house”

(oblique stem tsamz-)

  1. village

tsap /tsap/ – tapinanimate noun

Old Kharulian tap

(plural teby)

  1. leg

  2. the tenth letter of the alphabet, t

tsaru /ˈ – tasuinanimate noun

Old Kharulian tazo “back”

  1. other side (of a barrier)

  2. opposite

tsarug’s (tsarúgas) /tsaˈru.ɡəs/ – truksinanimate noun

Old Kharulian tarúugus “hoard, stockpile”, collective of rúugus “valuables”

  1. library

  2. collection (of unique items)

tsas /tsas/ – tasinanimate noun

Old Kharulian tas

  1. two

tsaú /tsaˈu/ – tauanimate noun

Old Kharulian tauh

(plural stem tsóo-)

  1. flying insect

tulku /ˈtuɫ.ku/ – tuhkuinanimate noun

Old Kharulian toluko, from Old Muipidan tholuk’o “granary”, used to mean “a large number”

  1. 3,600 (60 squared)

u /u/ – upostposition

Old Kharulian uu “to come”

(obviate av)

  1. from

  2. associated with, belonging to

úa /ˈu.a/ – uainanimate noun

Old Kharulian húua

  1. earth

ugen /uˈɟɛn/ – uceninanimate noun

Old Kharulian uugèn

  1. four

  2. jiamugen (ghiamugen) /ʝa.muˈɟɛn/ – jamuceninanimate noun

    literally “one-four”, implying “as easy as adding one and four”

    1. easy problem, piece of cake

uírnil (uírnil) /uˈiɹ̠ʲ.ɲiɫ/ – uidgihstative verb

Old Kharulian oérnel “to be exposed”

  1. to feel cold

ul /uɫ/ – uhinanimate noun

Old Kharulian ul

  1. still water

  2. the fourth letter of the alphabet, u

um /um/ – uminanimate noun

Old Kharulian uum

  1. year

  2. rutum /ruˈtum/ – rutuminanimate noun
    1. birthday (at a multiple of five years)

    2. birthday celebration

    3. luee rutum /ɫeː ruˈtum/ – he rutuminanimate noun
      1. fifteenth birthday

úmolot /ˈɫɔt/ – umohotanimate noun

Old Kharulian húmòlòt, from Old Muipidan fumolto “domestic dog” (source of Muipidan fumuyto)

(oblique stem úmolt-)

  1. Muipidan sheepdog

únus /ˈu.nus/ – unsinanimate noun

Back-formed from unzip’t “script, writing” (which looks like the genitive plural of a stem únus plus the suffix -p’t “speech”), from Old Kharulian hunuzepët “character”, from Old Muipidan xuhnusephado (source of Muipidan huhnusïphïdo)

(oblique stem unz-)

  1. letter (of the alphabet)

  2. Unzip’t (Unzhípat) /unˈʒi.pət/ – unsiptinanimate noun

    Directly from Old Kharulian hunuzepët “character”, from Old Muipidan xuhnusephado (source of Muipidan huhnusïphïdo), but reanalyzed as “letters’ speech” from únus “letter”

    1. the Kharulian script

ura /ˈu.ra/ – uraanimate noun

Old Kharulian húúruha

  1. husband

ússur /ˈus.sur/ – ussurverb

Old Kharulian óssor “to climb”

  1. to grow

  2. kuiiluee sússurza /ˈkʷiː.ɫeː ˈ – kihe sussursaparticiple

    calqued from Muipidan sindide m-ofloyto

    1. growing season, from mid-winter to mid-spring

uulyga (uulga) /ˈuːlʲ.ɡa/ – udkaanimate noun

Old Kharulian íwliga, dual of iw “blood”

  1. (informal) sexual intercourse

  2. úulygacy (uulgakh) /ˈuːlʲ.ɡaç/ – udkayverb
    1. (informal) to have sex

váantam san /ˈβaːn.tam san/ – vantam sanpostpositional phrase

Old Kharulian wòántam san “towards the highlands”

  1. (north of the Lagendeda, or from 4th century) northward, north of

  2. (south of the Lagendeda) southward, south of

      • Váantam san mabnan

        = I’m heading north

vájias (vághias) /ˈβa.ʝas/ – vajasverb

Old Kharulian wáyas

(suffixed stem vuees-)

  1. to swim

  2. ivájias (ivághias) /iˈβa.ʝas/ – ivajasanimate noun
    1. nerite

vur /βur/ – vuranimate noun

Old Kharulian wor

  1. horse

  2. (inanimate) the eleventh letter of the alphabet, v

  3. Vurili /βuˈɹ̠ʲi.lʲi/ – vuriliinanimate noun
    1. city of Vurili, the original capital of Kharul