Nitherian Lexicon

Total entries: 118

A

C

E

I

K

L

M

N

O

P

S

T

V

W

Y

Z

aonoun

Old Nitherian agosl

(possessed stem aosl-)

  1. man

  2. (possessed) husband

chanoverb

Old Nitherian tlyano “to be soft”

(2s chnta)

  1. to be soft, tender

  2. to be pliable, obedient

  3. chnpyaverb with directional
    1. to cook (especially fish)

    2. to train (a soldier)

    3. chachnpyanoun
      1. cadet, military recruit

chienoun

Old Nitherian tliges

(possessed stem chiesh-)

  1. tongue

chnchinoun

Old Nitherian kyn-tyis, diminutive of kyn “woman”

  1. woman

  2. (possessed) wife

choverb

Old Nitherian tsio

(irregular)

  1. to sit

  2. (with locative, of generic solid things) to be at

  3. sozmslonoun

    literally “they aren’t (sitting) here”

    1. zero

chomoverb

Old Nitherian tsyomo “to fall”

(2s chmta)

  1. to be moved, to move outside of one’s control

  2. chm-ashonoverb with directional

    (2s chm-ashnta)

    1. to pass time, to waste time

chorinoun

Old Nitherian kyori “cassava”

  1. root vegetable

  2. cassava

evonoun

Old Nitherian hebo

  1. forest canopy

  2. overcast sky, cloud cover

ezhinoun

Old Nitherian edlis “belly”

(possessed stem ezhish-)

  1. stomach

  2. centre, core

iasoverb

Old Nitherian igao “to puncture”

(2s iatha)

  1. to sew

  2. ia-yawaverb with directional

    literally “to sew here and there”

    1. to assemble shoddily

    2. to make by patchwork

ironoun

Old Nitherian yiro “change”

  1. arrival

  2. return

  3. end, finish

    1. evening

  4. s’iroadverb
    1. (in atelic clause) anew, again

    2. Note

      The similar-looking adverb v’iro is compositional; it just means “in the evening” or “upon arrival”.

isoverb

Old Nitherian yiso

(2s ita)

  1. to make

ithnnoun

Old Nitherian yisdn “piece of cloth”

  1. skirt

  2. ithn-ithnnoun
    1. clothing

kiraverb

Old Nitherian kirao

(a-pattern)

  1. to run

kirinoun

Old Nitherian kiri “step”

  1. departure

  2. first step, beginning

    1. dawn, morning

kwenoun

Old Nitherian koe

  1. child, youth

lanoun

Old Nitherian lwa

(pair-reduplicated (lala))

  1. foot, leg

lanesentence-initial particle

Old Nitherian lwasne “against”

  1. but, however

  2. on the other hand, in contrast

lnnoun

Old Nitherian ln

  1. time, instance

  2. va lnadverb
    1. (in telic clause) again

loverb

Old Nitherian lyoo “to bend over”

(irregular)

  1. to be sad, to weep

  2. to hunch over, to stoop

  3. (with locative, of bent, broken, or ruined things) to be at

  4. (of the sky) to rain

mopreposition

Old Nitherian homo “to be at”

(3rd person only, 3p mslo)

  1. at (a place)

monoun

Old Nitherian mo

  1. cloud

mthaslonumeral

Old Nitherian mimdaslo

  1. seven

mvnslonumeral

Old Nitherian mimbynslo, related to byn “three”

  1. eight

mwesoverb

Old Nitherian hmweso

(2s mwetha)

  1. to be cold

mwonoun

Old Nitherian gmwo

  1. mango

  2. (possessed) woman’s breast

  3. oslaslo va mwonoun
    1. mango juice

    2. breastmilk

myoverb

Old Nitherian mi

(stem mi-, 1s mi, 2s mitha, 2p mwa)

  1. to go, to move

  2. mi-lyoverb with directional
    1. to go (away), to leave

    my-asoverb with directional
    1. to come

-nnoun>noun suffix

Old Nitherian -hn

(-an after another syllabic nasal)

  1. forms collective nouns

  2. Note

    This suffix consists of a single syllabic /n̩/ phoneme. Usually this is simply pronounced as a coda /n/, resulting in the stress shifting to the last phonetic syllable. Nouns with this suffix take plural agreements.

nithenoun

Old Nitherian nide

  1. person

noyesoverb (ineffective type)

Old Nitherian noyeso “to reach”

(2s noyetha, prefixed -naye-)

  1. (of plants) to grow

  2. to try, to attempt

  3. to improve (at a skill)

  4. noyekesoverb with intensive
    1. to try one’s best

    2. to struggle, to strive

    3. to compete

nwenoun

Old Nitherian gnwes

(possessed stem nwes-)

  1. nose

-nyEnyEnoun>noun suffix

Old Nitherian -nyonyo, from hnyo “dye”

(-nini after an I-stem)

  1. colourful

  2. decorative

nyesoverb

Old Nitherian nyeso “to entangle”

(2s nyetha)

  1. to like romantically

  2. to court, to woo

nyoshinoun

Old Nitherian hnyosi, diminutive of hnyo “dye”

  1. dye

  2. colour

-okenoun>noun suffix

from -o-kwe, from kwe “child”

  1. (of a person) young

opanoun

Old Nitherian opwa

  1. banana

oslanoun

Old Nitherian oslas

(possessed stem oslasl-)

  1. water

  2. (possessed by a fruit) juice

oyanumeral

Old Nitherian hwoyao, literally “it is complete”, referring to the fully-counted hand

  1. five

pinoverb

Old Nitherian pino

(2s pnta)

  1. to stand

  2. pn-pasoverb with applicative

    (2s pn-pata)

    1. to be with (someone), to meet (someone)

saclitic

Old Nitherian so

(contracts to s’ if the following word starts with a vowel or glide)

  1. forms manner adverbials

  2. characterized by, having

-saladerivation II verb affix

Old Nitherian -salwa, from -san-lwa, literally “with the feet”; the implication is that the person is so good at a delicate task that they could even do it with their feet.

  1. well, skilfully

sechasoverb (give type)

Old Nitherian swekyawo “to haggle”, from swegeo “to shout” + -yawo “here and there”

  1. (intransitive) to buy

  2. (transitive) to sell

      • Mosechashi yo opa

        = I bought bananas; he/she sold me bananas

  3. sesechanoun
    1. merchant, trader

seyoverb (ineffective type)

Old Nitherian swegeo “to shout”

(stem see-, irregular)

  1. to say

  2. to claim, to assert

  3. see-lyoverb with directional

    literally “say away”

    1. to reject (a claim, idea, or object)

    2. to dismiss (a concern)

shenoun

Old Nitherian sye

  1. stone

shinoverb

Old Nitherian slino

(2s slnta)

  1. to walk

shinyenoun

Old Nitherian sinye

  1. wedding, marriage

slezlenumeral

Old Nitherian yisledlai, literally “I jump to the (other) hand”

  1. six

thithisoverb

Old Nitherian dwidwio “to glitter”

(2s thithitha)

  1. to be shiny

  2. to be bright, to shine

thmchinoun

Old Nitherian dmtyis, diminutive of dm “boy”

  1. boy

thonumeral

Old Nitherian dosl

  1. two

thwerwinumeral

Old Nitherian doeroi “a large number”

  1. 216 (six cubed)

thwesasonumeral

Old Nitherian doesaso “a huge number”

  1. 1,296 (six to the fourth power)

thwinumeral

Old Nitherian doi “more”

  1. thirty-six

tlaranumeral

Old Nitherian tlarasl, abstracted from dosltlarasl, originally “twelve” but later “twenty-four”

  1. twelve

tlonoun

Old Nitherian tlo

(pair-reduplicated (tlotlo))

  1. hand, arm

  2. thotlonumeral

    literally “two hands”

    1. ten

    2. thotlwethmnumeral

      literally “ten-one”

      1. eleven

tlwanoun

Old Nitherian tloas

(possessed stem tlwasl-)

  1. pineapple

tnnoun

Old Nitherian tn

  1. coconut fruit

  2. ezhishotnnoun
    1. coconut seed

tsanoun

Old Nitherian tsa

  1. bone

tsesoverb

Old Nitherian tseso

  1. to eat

tsovonoun

Old Nitherian tsobo

  1. honey

  2. wi-sntsovosoverb with applicative and incorporated noun

    literally “to speak honey”

    1. to reassure, to comfort

vaparticle

Old Nitherian ba

  1. from, derived from

  2. belonging to (alienably)

  3. at a specific time

vaverb

Old Nitherian bwa “to hang”

(a-pattern)

  1. to be from (a place, often incorporated)

vanoun

Old Nitherian bwaa

  1. fire

vanonoun

Old Nitherian bwanosl

(possessed stem vanosl-)

  1. (non-edible) root

veraslonumeral

Old Nitherian gosberaslo

  1. nine

vimoverb

Old Nitherian bwimo

(2s vmta)

  1. to be hot

vionoun

Old Nitherian bislhyo

  1. finger

  2. toe

  3. number, count

vnnumeral

Old Nitherian byn

  1. three

vonoun

Old Nitherian bos

  1. tree branch

voslosloverb

Old Nitherian bwoslsoso “to float”

(2s voslotha)

  1. to sail, to go by boat

  2. vovoslonoun
    1. sailor

    voslo-lyoverb with directional
    1. to escape

    2. voslo-leslanoverb with directional and applicative
      1. to elope with

    volso-melavaslalosloverb with directional, applicative, and incorporated noun

    literally “dock in a body”, with the image of an eternal soul sailing into an infant’s body and docking there

    1. to be born

    2. shivoshomelavashalonoun
      1. birth

      2. birth ceremony

wenoun

Old Nitherian wai

  1. sun

wethmnumeral

Old Nitherian wedm

  1. one

wisoverb (give-type)

Old Nitherian wiso

(2s wita, perfective miso)

  1. (intransitive) to hear, to find out

  2. (transitive) to tell, to speak to

wnyonumeral

Old Nitherian wnweo, literally “it is missing”, referring to the thumb, the last finger to count on

  1. four

wolonoun

Old Nitherian wolo

(incorporated -walo)

  1. (person’s) body

yarnnoun

Old Nitherian hwoyarn, literally “completion”

  1. day

  2. v’yarnadverb
    1. today

    s’yarnadverb
    1. tomorrow

yathmnoun

Old Nitherian yadm

  1. chili pepper

  2. wi-sanyathmoverb with applicative and incorporated noun

    literally “to speak chilis”

    1. to berate, to scold

    2. to be angry at

ymvoverb

Old Nitherian ymboo

  1. to sit cross-legged

  2. (especially with intensive) to be idle

  3. (with locative, of ropes and rope-like things) to be at

ynynnoun

Old Nitherian ynyn, reduplication of yn “lip”

  1. mouth

yopreposition

Old Nitherian hyo, originally “to use”

  1. with, using

  2. along with, and

yonoun

Old Nitherian eo

  1. blood

yoshanoun

Old Nitherian yosya

  1. flower

  2. wi-sanyoshashoverb with applicative and incorporated noun

    literally “to speak flowers”

    1. to flatter, to praise

yoslatlnnoun

Old Nitherian yoslasl-tn, with the usual yoslasl- prefix to form the name of the tree from the name of the fruit

  1. coconut palm

yosloverb (give-type)

Old Nitherian yoslo “to hold”

(irregular)

  1. to give

  2. to introduce

  3. yolesanoadjective

    literally “that is being given away”

    1. (of a number) negative

    2. vio yolesanonoun

      (plural vio yolesnslo)

      1. negative number

zhinoun

Old Nitherian dis

(possessed stem zhish-)

  1. sky

zhimishoverb

Old Nitherian dislmio

(2s zhimitha)

  1. to be white

  2. to be faded

  3. nizhimishonoun

    literally “white one”, referring to hair colour

    1. elderly person

    2. village elder

    3. nizhimishonplural noun
      1. council of elders